STEM help / Calculation framework

Results beginning with ‘L’

Leverage

An alternative measure of the balance between borrowing and equity in the business.

Net Borrowing divided by Equity.

Include: Standard

Limit

The borrowing limit for a particular Debt Facility.

The Maximum Credit input, or a very large number if the input is zero.

Include: Advanced

Long Term Assets

Assets which are not expected to be sold, or are not readily convertible to cash.

Net Tangible Assets plus Net Intangible Assets plus Investments.

Include: Standard

Long-Term Borrowing

External funding for the business, representing a combination of loans and bonds, split between Long-Term Borrowing Payable and Borrowing Payable after One Year.

Long-Term Borrowing Required, or the sum of Debt Facility Balances if greater, which may not be repaid as quickly as the Network earns cash.

Include: Standard

Long-Term Borrowing Float

Any borrowing over and above the defined credit facilities and limits is assumed to be covered by a fully flexible instrument (‘float’) identified with the global Borrowing Rate input.

Include: Standard

Long-Term Borrowing Float Payable

The amount of long-term borrowing float which must be re-paid in the coming year, shown as a current liability on a balance sheet.

Long-Term Borrowing Float multiplied by the Borrowing Payable Proportion input.

Include: Standard

Long-Term Borrowing Payable

The amount of long-term borrowing which must be re-paid in the coming year, shown as a current liability on a balance sheet.

The sum of Debt Long-Term Borrowing Payable and Long-Term Borrowing Float Payable.

Include: Standard

Long-Term Borrowing Required

External funding for the business, representing a combination of loans and bonds, split between Long-Term Borrowing Payable and Borrowing Payable after One Year.

The opposite sign of Net Surplus Cash, if the latter is negative, otherwise zero. (Positive Net Surplus Cash is shown as Surplus Cash, split between Cash Deposits and Investments.)

Include: Standard

Long-Term Investment Proportion

The proportion of surplus cash in long-term investments, as opposed to on deposit as liquid, short-term investments (typically marketable securities).

The Long-Term Investment Proportion input.

Include: Standard

Loss Carried Forward (N)

The loss carried forward from N years ago, to be offset against a positive Pre-Tax Profit, if limited tax relief is available (i.e., input Tax Relief Regime = Limited).

Loss Remaining (N – 1) from the previous year, if N does not exceed the Tax Relief Years input, otherwise zero; and for N = 1, minus Pre-Tax Profit if the latter is negative. The year-zero value is calculated from the value of the input Prior Annual Loss in the year –N.

Include: Advanced

Loss Carried Forward (U)

The total cumulative loss carried forward to be offset against a positive Pre-Tax Profit, including the loss accrued this year if Pre-Tax Profit is negative, if unlimited tax relief is available (i.e., input Tax Relief Regime = Unlimited).

Loss Remaining (U) from the previous year, minus Pre-Tax Profit if the latter is negative. The year-zero value is calculated from the sum of the Prior Annual Loss input over the years prior to the model run period, up to a limit specified by the Tax Relief Years input.

Include: Advanced

Loss Remaining (N)

The loss from N years ago left to be carried forward to the next year, if limited tax relief is available (i.e., input Tax Relief Regime = Limited).

Loss Carried Forward (N)Taxable Profit before Relief (N), or zero, whichever is greater.

Include: Advanced

Loss Remaining (U)

The total cumulative loss remaining to be carried forward to the next year, if unlimited tax relief is available (i.e., input Tax Relief Regime = Unlimited).

Loss Carried Forward (U)Taxable Profit before Relief (U), or zero, whichever is greater.

Include: Advanced

 

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